Entry Mode to Western Balkans: An Implementation in Albania and Kosovo Markets / Batı Balkanlara Giriş Şekli: Arnavutluk ve Kosova Pazarlarında Bir Uygulama

2.664 590


There are three main entry modes in the literature regarding entering international markets such as export based, contractual based, and investment based. Choice of entry mode depends on some variables such as host country, home country, macro environment elements, degree of control, and sectoral factors. The aim of this research was to understand the sectoral insights regarding international trade relations between Turkey and Balkans, and reveal the entry modes which are mostly preferred by companies in international trade between Turkey and Balkans. One Turkish company, one Albanian company, and one Kosovon company were included to the research sample in order to analyze the trade relations between Turkey and Balkans. Convenience sampling technique was used in selecting these companies which have already had trade relations. Albanian and Kosovon firms were included to the research in order to represent Balkan markets since they are the business partners of Turkish company. Structured online interview technique was used as data collection method, and two employees from each company were interviewed online. Findings showed that the most preferred entry mode between Turkey and Balkan markets is exporting. Except exporting; joint venture, franchising, and licensing agreements are preferred by Turkish and Balkan companies commonly. It was advised to Turkish and Balkan firms to pay attention to the variables in the literature which affect firms’ decisions regarding entry modes when entering a new international market.  

Tam metin:

PDF (English)


Anderson, E., & Gatignon, H. (1986). Modes of foreign entry: A transaction cost analysis and propositions. Journal of International Business Studies, 17(3), 1-26.

Burgel, O., & Murray, G. C. (2000). The international market entry choices of start-up companies in high-technology industries. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2), 33-62.

Cengiz, E., Gegez, A. E., Arslan, M., Pirtini, S., Tığlı, M. (2007). Uluslararası Pazarlara Giriş Stratejileri. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.

Demirbag, M., Tatoglu, E., & Glaister, K. W. (2009). Equity-based entry modes of emerging country multinationals: Lessons from Turkey. Journal of World Business, 44(4), 445-462.

Erramilli, M. K., & Rao, C. P. (1993). Service firms' international entry-mode choice: A modified transaction-cost analysis approach. The Journal of Marketing, 19-38.

Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3), 411-432.

Kumar, V., & Subramaniam, V. (1997). A contingency framework for the mode of entry decision. Journal of World Business, 32(1), 53-72.

Nakos, G., & Brouthers, K. D. (2002). Entry mode choice of SMEs in Central and Eastern Europe. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27(1), 47-63.

Pan, Y., & Tse, D. K. (2000). The hierarchical model of market entry modes. Journal of International Business Studies, 535-554.

Parasuraman, A., & Zinkhan, G. M. (2002). Marketing to and serving customers through the Internet: An overview and research agenda. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 30(4), 286-295.

Reppel, A. E., Szmigin, I., & Gruber, T. (2006). The iPod phenomenon: identifying a market leader's secrets through qualitative marketing research. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(4), 239-249.

Tse, D. K., Pan, Y., Au, K. Y. (1997). How MNCs choose entry modes and form alliances: The China experience. Journal of International Business Studies, 779-805.