Hatay'da İki Dillilik ve İki Dillilikten Kaynaklanan Dil Karışması/Bilingualism in Hatay And Interference due to Bilingualism

Hüseyin Türk, Koray Cengiz
4.582 1.907

Öz


Hatay ilinde Türkçe ve Arapça, günlük konuşma dilinde iki dilli bireyler tarafından etkin bir şekilde kullanılmaktadır. Ana dili Arapça olan iki dilli bireyler günlük iletişimlerinde konuştukları bireylerin dilsel altyapısını da dikkate alarak iki dile ait ögeleri bir arada kullanarak farklı dil örüntüleri oluşturmaktadırlar.

Bu çalışma, Hatay ilinin farklı bölgelerinden seçilen iki dilli bireylerin konuşmaları esnasında ortaya çıkan kelime ödünç alma (word-borrowing) ve dil karışması (interference) durumlarını incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma esnasında yerli ve yabancı literatürden yararlanılmış, katılımlı gözlem ve mülakat teknikleri kullanılmış, daha önce yapılan benzer çalışmalar incelenmiştir.

Çalışma sonucunda, iki dilli bireylerin her iki dile ait konuşmalarında karşı dilden yani Arapça ve Türkçeden kelimeleri ödünç almada ve kullanmada bir sakınca görmedikleri gözlenmiştir. İki dilli bireyler, dil bilgisel kurallara uygun olmamasına rağmen dilsel faydacılığı tercih etmektedirler.

Anahtar Sözcükler: İki Dillilik, Kelime Ödünç Alma, Dil Karışması, Hatay, Türkçe, Arapça.

Abstract

In daily life Arabic and Turkish are actively spoken by the bilingual people in Hatay city. Bilingual people whose mother tongue are Arabic construct mixed language patterns depending on the person they talk in their daily conversation.

This essay aims to research the conversation of bilingual people from different parts of Hatay in the means of word-borrowing and interference. In the frame of this study, all the literature and sources related to the study in Turkish and foreign languages are searched and the previous studies are analyzed and participant observation and interviews are used.

As a result of the study, it is observed that the bilingual people easily could transfer words and language patterns into another language during their conversations. Bilinguals use a pragmatic approach while expressing themselves even though these language patterns are not considered to be grammatically correct in both languages.

Keywords: Bilingualism, Word-borrowing, Language Interference, Hatay, Turkish, Arabic.


Tam metin:

PDF ()

Referanslar


Akarsu, B. (1998), Dil - Kültür Bağlantısı, İstanbul: İnkılap Kitabevi

Anderson, R. (1976), The Cultural Context, An Introduction To Cultural Anthropology, Minnesota: Burgess Publishing Company

Benveniste, E. (1995), Genel Dilbilim Sorunları, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, İstanbul: Altan Matbaacılık.

Berlin, B. & Kay, P. (1969). Basic Color Terms, Berkeley: University of California Press 2003.

Bloomfield, L. (1933) Language, New York: HOLT.

Clyne, M. (1967), Transference and Triggering, The Hague: Nijhoff.

Cummins, J. (1976), “The Influence of Bilingualism on Cognitive Growth: A Synthesis of Research Findings and Explanatory Hypotheses”. Working Papers on Bilingualism 9.

Diebold, A. R. (1961), Incipient Bilingualism. Language 37, 97-112.

Fishman, J. A. (1971-2), Advances in the Sociology of Language, The Hague: Mouton.

Fox, R. (1973), Encounter With Anthropology, New York

Grosjean, F. (1982), Life With Two Languages, U.S.A.: Harvard College.

Güvenç, Bozkurt. (1999), İnsan ve Kültür, (8. Baskı), İstanbul: Remzi Kitabevi

Hamers, J. F. ve Blanc, M. H.A. (1989), Bilinguality and Bilingualism, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Hamers J.F. ve Blanc, M.H.A. (1982), Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 29-49

Haugen, E. (1953) Bilingualism in the Americas, Montgomery AL: University of Alabama Press.

Hickerson, N. P. (1980), Linguistic Anthropology, Texas Tech University.

Hockett, C. F., (1958), A Course In Modern Linguistics, New York: Macmillan.

Hockett, C. F. ve Robert, A. (1964), “The Human Revolution”, Current Anthropology June, 1964 Vol.5 (3):135-166.

Hoijer, H. (1967), Phonology and Morphology of Navaho Language, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hoebel, E.A. (1972), Anthropology the Study of Man, New York, McGraw-Hill.

Hoijer, Harry. (1971). “Patterns of Meaning in Navaho.” In Themes in Culture. (eds. Zamora, Mario; Mahar, J.M.; and Orenstein, Henry.). Quezon City: Kayumanggi Publishers. 227-237.

Holloway, R. L. (1969), “Culture: A Human Domain”, Current Anthropology, 10, s. 395-412.

Hyltenstam, K. ve Obler, L. (1989), Bilingualism Across the Lifespan: Acquisition, Maturity, and Loss, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

İmer, K. (1987), “Toplumdilbilimin Kimi Kavramlarına Bir Bakış ve Dil Türleri”, A.Ü. Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi 213-230.

Kaplan, D. ve Manners, R.A.(Ed). (1968). Theory in Anthropology, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago

Kesckes, I. ve Papp, T. (2000), Foreign Language and Mother Tongue, Hillsday, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

König, G. (1991) 'Toplumdilbilim Açısından Dil ve Dil Türleri', Dilbilim Araştırmaları, 1991, Hitit Yayınevi, s. 59-70.

Mackey, W.F. (1968), “The description of bilingualism”, (Ed. J.A. Fishman), Readings in the Sociology of Language.

Malmberg, B. (1977), Manual of Phonetics, Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Mougeon, R. ve Beniak, É. (1987), “Minority language schooling without home language maintenance: Impact on language proficiency”, (Ed. A. Holmen), Copenhagen Studies in Bilingualism, vol. 4: Bilingualism and the individual, Multilingual Matters, pp. 253-264.

Paulston, C.B. (1977b). “Review article: Language in Kenya, Language,53, s.174-89.

Pfaff, C. (1979), Constraints on language mixing: Intrasentential code-switching and borrowing in Spanish / English, Language, 55, 291-318.

Romaine, S. (1989), Bilingualism, UK: Blackwell Publishers.

Salzman, P.C. (1978). “Ideology and Change in Tribal Society.” Man, 13: 618 - 37.

Schatzman, L. ve Strauss, A. (1955), “Social Class and Modes of Communication”, American Journal of Sociology, LX, pp. 336-337.

Skutnabb, T. ve Kangas, L. (1981), Bilingualism Or Not, England: Multilingual Matters 7.

Strauss, C.L. (1996). Yaban Düşünce, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, İstanbul: Altan Matbaacılık.

Weinreich, U. (1953). Languages in Contact, The Hague: Mouton.

Weinrecih, U. ve Labov, W. ve Herzog, M. (1968), “Empirical Foundations for a Theory of Language Change, (Ed. Lehmann, W.P. and Malkiel, Y.), Directions for Historical Linguistics, Austin TX, University of Texas Press, 95-195.

White, L. (1949). The science of Culture, A Study of Man and Civilization: New York, Strand.