Antecedents Of Employees' Trust In Supervisors, Management, and Organizations/ Çalışanın Bir Üst Yöneticisine, Yönetime ve Organizasyona Duyduğu Güvenin Belirleyicileri

Adnan Özyılmaz
3.200 819

Öz


Abstract

The benefits of trust for organizations have been emphasized in the academic literature. In the beginning of the last decade, empirical research revealed that referents of trust are important. Therefore, we investigated the empirical studies published in the same time period regarding the antecedents of the three referents of trust: direct supervisors, management, and organizations. The results indicate that the antecedents can be classified into five distinct groups or factors: socio-psychological, managerial, common, organizational, and encompassing factors. Accordingly, employees' trust in management is affected by socio-psychological, managerial, and common factors, but not by organizational and encompassing factors. Managerial, common, and encompassing factors influence employees' trust in direct supervisors. Employees' trust in organizations is directly affected by common factors, organizational factors, and employees' trust in their direct supervisors and is indirectly influenced by managerial factors, common factors, and encompassing factors through employees' trust in their direct supervisors. Given these findings, we put forth a model of trust referents through mapping the antecedents with each particular trust referent that will guide future research efforts.

Key Words: Trust, Employees' trust in direct supervisors, Employees' trust in management, Employees' trust in organizations.

Özet

Güvenin organizasyonlar için önemi akademik literatürde vurgulanmaktadır. Geçen on yıllık dönemin başında, ampirik araştırmalar güven imlemlerinin (referents) önemli olduğunu gösterdi. Bundan dolayı, geçen on yıllık süre içerisinde yayınlanmış ampirik araştırmaları üç güven inleminin öncülleri açısından inceledik: bir üst yöneticiler, yönetim ve organizasyonlar. Sonuçlar, güven öncüllerinin beş farklı grupta veya faktörde toplanabileceğini göstermektedir: sosyo-psikolojik, yönetimsel, ortak, örgütsel ve kuşatan faktörler. Buna göre, çalışanların yönetime güveni, sosyo-psikolojik, yönetimsel, ve ortak faktörler tarafından etkilenmekte, fakat örgütsel ve kuşatan faktörler tarafından etkilenmemektedir. Yönetimsel, ortak ve kuşatan faktörler, çalışanların bir üst yöneticilerine güvenini etkilemektedir. Çalışanların organizasyona güvenleri, ortak faktör, örgütsel faktörler ve çalışanların bir üst yöneticilerine güvenleri tarafından direk olarak, ve yönetimsel faktörler, ortak faktörler ve kuşatan faktörler tarafından çalışanların bir üst yöneticisine duyduğu güven aracılığı ile endirek olarak etkilenmektedir. Bu bulgulara dayanarak, gelecekte yapılacak araştırmalara rehberlik edecek bir güven imlemleri modelini, güven öncüllerini her bir belirli güven imlemi ile eşleştirmek suretiyle ortaya koymaktayız.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Güven, Çalışaların bir üst yöneticilerine güveni, Çalışanların yönetime güveni, Çalışanların organizasyonlara güveni.


Tam metin:

PDF

Referanslar


Adams, J. S. (1963). “Toward an Understanding of Inequity”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 422-436.

Ambrose, M. L., & Schminke, M. (2003). “Organization Structure as a Moderator of the Relationship between Procedural Justice, Interactional Justice, and Perceived Organizational Support, and Supervisory Trust”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 295-305.

Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). “Trust as a Mediator of the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Work Outcomes: Test of a Social Exchange Model”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 267-285.

Atuahene-Gima, K., & Li, H. (2002). “When does Trust Matter? Antecedents and Contingent Effects of Supervisee Trust on Performance in Selling New Products in China and the United States”. Journal of Marketing, 66, 61-81.

Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). “Meta-analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance”. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, 127-152.

Bakker, A., & Schaufeli, W. (2008). “Positive Organizational Behavior: Engaged Employees in Flourishing Organizations”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 147-154.

Barney, J. B., & Hansen, M. H. (1994). “Trustworthiness as a Source of Competitive Advantage”. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 175-190.

Bernerth, J. B., & Walker, H. J. (2009). “Propensity to Trust and the Impact on Social Exchange”. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15, 217-226.

Bian, Y. (1994). Work and Inequity in Urban China. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. F. (1986). “Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness”. (Eds.: R. J. Lewicki, B. H. Sheppard, & M. H. Bazerman) Research on Negotiations in Organizations: Connecticut, Greenwich: JAI Press Inc., pp. 43-55.

Bijlsma, K. M., & Van de Bunt, G. G. (2003). “Antecedents of Trust in Managers: A “Bottom up” Approach”. Personnel Review, 32, 638-664.

Bijlsma-Frankema, K., Jong, D. B., & Van de Bunt, G. (2008). “Heed, a Missing Link between Trust, Monitoring and Performance in Knowledge Intensive Teams”. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 19-40.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley.

Brashear, T. G., Boles, J. S., Bellenger, D. N., & Brooks, C. M. (2003). “An Empirical Test of Trust-building Processes and Outcomes in Sales Manager-salesperson Relationships”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31, 189-200.

Brashear, T. G., Manolis, C., & Brooks, C. M. (2005). “The Effects of Control, Trust, and Justice on Salesperson Turnover”. Journal of Business Research, 58, 241-249.

Brower, H. H., Lester, S. W., Korsgaard, M. A., & Dineen, B. R. (2009). “A Closer Look at Trust between Managers and Subordinates: Understanding the Effects of both Trusting and Being Trusted on Subordinate Outcomes”. Journal of Management, 35, 327-347.

Challagalla, G. T., & Shervani, T. A. (1996). “Dimensions and Types of Supervisory Control: Effects on Salesperson Performance and Satisfaction”. Journal of Marketing, 60, 89-105.

Chan, Y. H., Taylor, R. R., & Markham, S. (2008). “The Role of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process,” Journal of Managerial Issues, 10, 444-467.

Chen, C. C., Chen, Y., & Xin, K. (2004). “Guanxi Practices and Trust in Management: A Procedural Justice Perspective”. Organization Science, 15, 200-209.

Chen, C. V., Wang, S., Chang, W., & Hu, C. (2008). “The Effect of Leader-member Exchange, Trust, Supervisor Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Nurses”. Journal of Nursing Research, 16, 321-328.

Chiaburu, D. S., & Byrne, Z. S. (2009). “Predicting OCB Role Definitions: Exchanges with the Organization and Psychological Attachment”. Journal of Business Psychology, 24, 201-214.

Child, J., & Möllering, G. (2003). “Contextual Confidence and Active Trust Development in the Chinese Business Environment”. Organization Science, 14, 69-80.

Choi, N. H., Dixon, A. L., & Jung, J. M. (2004). “Dysfunctional Organization among Sales Representatives: The Effect of Supervisory Trust, Participation, and Information Controls”. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 14, 181-198.

Clapp-Smith, R., Vogelgesang, G., & Avey, J. (2009). “Authentic Leadership and Positive Psychological Capital: The Mediating Role of Trust at the Group Level of Analysis”. Organizational Studies, 15, 227-240.

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). “The Role of Justice in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis”. Organizatioal Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 278-321.

Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). “Trust, Trustworthiness, and Trust Propensity: A Meta-analytic Test of their Unique Relationship with Risk Taking and Job Performance”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 909-927.

Connell, J., Ferres, N., & Travaglione, T. (2003). “Engendering Trust in Manager-Subordinate Relationships: Predictors and Outcomes” Personnel Review, 32, 569-587.

Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). “New Work Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Non-fulfilment”. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53, 39-52.

Costigan, R. B., Insinga, R. C., Berman, J. J., Kranas, G., & Kureshov, V. A. (2011). “Revisiting the Relationship of Supervisor Trust and CEO Trust to Turnover Intentions: A Three-country Comparative Study”. Journal of World Business, 46, 74-83.

Creed, W. E. D., & Miles, R. E. (1996). “Trust in Organizations: A Conceptual Framework Linking Organizational Forms, Managerial Philosophies, and the Opportunity Costs of Controls”. (Eds.: R. M. Kramer, & T. R. Tyler). Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research: London: Sage, pp. 16-38.

Cropanzano, R., & Byrne, Z. S. (2000). “Workplace Justice and the Dilemma of Organizational Citizenship”. (Eds.: M. VanVugt, T. Tyler, & A. Biel). Collective Problems in Modern Society: Dilemmas and Solutions: London: Routledge, pp. 142–161.

Davis, J., Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Tan, H. (2000). “The Trusted General Manager and Business Unit Performance: Empirical Evidence of a Competitive Advantage”. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 563-576.

DeConinck, J. B. (2010). “The Effect of Organizational Justice, Perceived Organizational Support, and Perceived Support on Marketing Employee's Level of Trust”. Journal of Business Research, 63, 1349-1355.

Den Hartog, D. (2003). “Trusting Others in Organizations: Leaders, Management and Co-workers”. (Eds.: B. Nooteboom, & F. Six). The Trust Process in Organizations: Empirical Studies of the Determinants and the Process of Trust Development: UK, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, pp. 125-146.

Den Hartog, D. N., & De Hoogh, A. H. B. (2009). “Empowering Organization and Leader Fairness and Integrity: Studying Perceptions of Ethical Leader Organization from a Levels-of-Analysis Perspective”. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 199-120.

Den Hartog, D. N., Shippers, M. C., & Kopman, P. L. (2002). “The Impact of Leader Bahavior on Trust in Management and Co-workers”. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 28, 29-34.

Dirks, K. T. (2000). “Trust in Leadership and Team Performance: Evidence from NCAA Basketball”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 1004-1012.

Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2002). “Trust in Leadership: Meta-analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 611-628.

Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2001). “The Role of Trust in Organizational Settings”. Organization Science, 12, 450-467.

Dirks, K. T., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2009). “The Relationship between Being Perceived as Trustworthy by Coworkers and Individual Performance”. Journal of Management, 35, 136-157.

Dirks, K. T., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2004). “Trust in Leaders: Existing Research and Emerging Issues”. (Eds.: R. M. Kramer, & K. S. Cook). Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches. New York: Russell Sage Foundations, pp. 21-40,

Duffy, M. K., & Ferrier, W. J. (2003). “Birds of a Feather…? How Supervisor-subordinate Dissimilarity Moderates the Influence of Supervisor Organizations on Workplace Attitudes”. Group and Organization Management, 28, 217-248.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). “Perceived Organizational Support”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.

Ertürk, A. (2008). “A Trust-based Approach to Promote Employees' Openness to Organizational Change in Turkey”. International Journal of Manpower, 29, 462-483.

Ertürk, A. (2007). “Increasing Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Turkish Academicians: Mediating Role of Trust in Superiors on the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Citizenship Behaviors”. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 257-270.

Flaherty, K. E., & Pappas, J. M. (2000). “The Role of Trust in Salesperson-sales Manager Relationships”. The Journal of Personal and Sales Management, 20, 271-278.

Gabarro, J., & Athos, J. (1976). Interpersonal Relations and Communications. NJ, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Galford, R. M., & Drapeau, A.S. (2002). The Trusted Leader: Bringing out the Best in Your People and Your Company. New York: Free Press.

Gillespie, N. A., & Mann, L. (2004). “Transformational Leadership and Shared Values: The Building Blocks of Trust”. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19, 588-607.

Gomez, C., & Rosen, B. (2001). “The Leader-Member Exchange as a Link between Managerial Trust and Employee Empowerment”. Group and Organization Management, 26, 53-69.

Grey, C., & Garsten, C. (2001). “Trust, Control and Post-bureaucracy”. Organization Studies, 22, 229-250.

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1988). Management of Organizational Behavior. N.J, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Holtz, B., & Harold, C. M. (2008). “When Your Boss Says No! The Effects of Leadership Style and Trust on Employee Reactions to Managerial Explanations”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 777-802.

Huang, X., Iun, J., Liu, A., & Gong, Y. (2010). “Does Participative Leadership Enhance Work Performance by Inducing Empowerment or Trust? The Differential Effects on Managerial and Non-managerial Subordinates”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 122-143.

Huff, L., & Kelley, L. (2003). “Levels of Organizational Trust in Individualist versus Collectivist Societies: A Seven-nation Study”. Organization Science, 14, 81-90.

Jung, D., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). “Opening the Black Box: An Experimental Investigation of the Mediating Effects of Trust and Value Congruence on Transformational and Transactional Leadership”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 949-964.

Kramer, R. M. (2010). “Collective Trust within Organizations: Conceptual Foundations and Empirical Insights”. Corporate Reputation Review, 13, 82-97.

Kramer, R. M. (1999). “Trust and Distrust in Organizations: Emerging Perspectives, Enduring Questions”. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 569-598.

Kramer, R. M., & Lewicki, R. J. (2010). “Repairing and Enhancing Trust: Approaches to Reducing Organizational Trust Deficit”. The Academy of Management Annals, 4, 245-277.

Kumar, N., Scheer, L. K., Benedict, J., & Steenkamp, E. M. (1995). The Effects of Supplier Fairness on Vulnerable Resellers”. Journal of Marketing Research, 32, 54-65.

Lapidot, Y., Kark, R., & Shamir, B. (2007). “The Impact of Situational Vulnerability on the Development and Erosion of Followers' Trust in their Leader”. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 16-34.

Laschinger, H. K. S., Finegan, J., Shamian, J., & Casier, S. (2000). “Organizational Trust and Empowerment in Restructured Healthcare Settings: Effects on Staff Nurse Commitment”. Journal of Nursing Administration, 30, 413-425.

Lewicki, R. J., Tomlinson, E. C., & Gillespie, N. (2006). “Models of Interpersonal Trust Development: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Evidence, and Future Directions”. Journal of Management, 32, 991-1022.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). “Servant Leadership: Development of a Multidimensional Measure and Multi-level Assessment”. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 161-177.

Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum Press.

Liu, J., Siu, O., & Shi, K. (2010). “Transformational Leadership and Employee Well-being: The Mediating Role of Trust in the Leader and Self-efficacy”. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59, 454-479.

Luthans, F. (2002). “Positive Organizational Behavior: Developing and Managing Psychological Capital”. Academy of Management Executive, 16, 57-72.

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). “Positive Psychological Capital: Measurement and Relationship with Performance and Satisfaction”. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.

Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2007). “The Relationship between 'High-performance Work Practices' and Employee Attitudes: An Investigation of Additive and Interaction Affects”. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1, 537-567.

Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). “The Effect of the Performance Appraisal System on Trust for Management: A Field Quasi-experiment”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 123-136.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). “An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust”. Academy of Management Review, 20, 709-734.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). “Trust in Management and Performance: Who Minds the Shop While the Employees Watch the Boss?” Academy of Management Journal, 48, 874-888.

McAllister, D J. (1995). “Affect- and Cognition-based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations.” Academy of Management Journal, 38, 24-59.

Mengüç, B. (2000). “An Empirical Investigation of a Social Exchange Model of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors across Two Sales Situations: A Turkish Case”. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 20, 205-214.

Mishra, A. K. (1996). “Organizational Responses to Crisis: The Centrality of Trust”. (Eds.: R. M. Kramer, & T. R. Tyler). Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research. California, Sage Publications, pp. 261-287.

Moye, M. J., & Henkin, A. B. (2006). “Exploring Associations between Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Trust in Managers”. Journal of Management Development, 25, 101-117.

Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, F., & Locander, W. B. (2006). “Effects of Ethical Climate and Supervisory Trust on Salesperson's Job Attitudes and Intentions to Quit”. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 16, 19-26.

Neves, P., & Caetano, A. (2009). “Commitment to Change: Contributions to Trust in the Supervisor and Work Outcomes”. Group and Organization Management, 34, 623-644.

Neves, P., & Caetano, A. (2006). “Social Exchange Processes in Organizational Change: The Roles of Trust and Control”. Journal of Change Management, 6, 351-364.

Norman, S. B. (2003). The Effect of Training Managers to Gain Employee Trust on Employee Work-related Attitudes and Emotional Well-being. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University, California.

Payne, R. L., & Clark, M. C. (2003). “Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Trust in Two Types of Managers”. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 128-138.

Pillai, R., Williams, E. S., & Tan, J. J. (2001). “Are the Scales Tipped in Favour of Procedural or Distributive Justice? An Investigation of the U.S., India, Germany, and Hong Kong (China)”. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 12, 312-332.

Podsakoff, P. M., Bommer, W. H., Podsakoff, N. P., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). “Relationship between Leader Reward and Punishment Organization and Subordinate Attitudes, Perceptions, and Organizations: A Meta-analytic Review of Existing and New Research”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 99, 113-142.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Bachrach, D. G., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2005). “The Influence of Management Journals in the 1980s and 1990s”. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 473-488.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). “Transformational Leader Behaviors and Their Effects on Followers' Trust in Leader, Satisfaction, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors”. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-142.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, N. P., & Bachrach, D. G. (2008). “Scholarly Influence in the Field of Management: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Determinants of University and Author Impact in the Management Literature in the Past Quarter Century”. Journal of Management, 34, 641-720.

Poon, J. M. (2006). “Trust-in-supervisor and Helping Coworkers: Moderating Effect of Perceived Politcs”. Journal of Managerial Organization, 21, 518-532.

Robinson, S. L. (1996). “Trust and Breach of the Psychological Contract” Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 574-599.

Robinson, S. L., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). “Violating the Psychological Contract: Not the Exception but the Norm”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 245-259.

Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. (1998). “Not so Different after all: A Cross-discipline View of Trust”. Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404.

Scandura, T. A., & Pellegrini, E. K. (2008). “Trust and Leader-member Exchange: A Closer Look at Relational Vulnerability”. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15, 101-110.

Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An Integrated Model of Organizational Trust: Past, Present, and Future”. Academy of Management Review, 32, 344-354.

Shamir, B., & Lapidot, Y. (2003). “Trust in Organizational Superiors: Systemic and Collective Considerations”. Organization Studies, 24, 463-491.

Shockley-Zalabak, P., Ellis, K., & Winograd, G. (2000). “Organizational Trust: What it Means, Why it Matters”. Organizational Development Journal, 18, 35-48.

Sitkin, S. B., George, E. (2005). “Managerial Trust-building through the Use of Legitimating Formal and Informal Control Mechanisms”. International Sociology, 29, 307-338.

Stinglhamber, F., Cremer, D. D., & Mercken, L. (2006). “Perceived Support as a Mediator of the Relationship between Justice and Trust”. Group and Organizational Management, 31, 442-468.

Tan, H. H., & Lim, A. K. H. (2009). “Trust in Coworkers and Trust in Organizations”. The Journal of Psychology, 143, 45-66.

Tan, H. H., & Tan, C. S. F. (2000). “Toward the Differentiation of Trust in Supervisor and Trust in Organization”. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 241-260.

Thau, S., Crossley, C., Bennett, R. J., & Sczesny, S. (2007). “The Relationship between Trust, Attachment, and Antisocial Work Organizations” Human Relations, 60, 1155-1179.

Tsui, A. S., Pearce, J. L., Porter, L. W., & Tripoli, A. M. (1997). “Alternative Approaches to the Employee-organization Relationship: Does Investment in Employees Pay off?”Academy of Management Journal, 40, 1089-1121.

Tsui, A .S., & Wang, D. (2002). “Employment Relationships from the Employer's Perspective: Current Research and Future Directions”. (Eds.: C. L. Cooper, & I. T. Robertson). International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. UK, Chichester, Wiley, 17, 77-114

Tzafrir, S. S., Harel, G. H., Baruch, Y., & Dolan, S. L. (2004). “The Consequences of Emerging HRM Practices for Employees' Trust in Their Management”. Personnel Review, 33, 628-647.

Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). “Servant Leadership, Procedural Justice Climate, Service Climate, Employee Attitudes, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Cross-level Investigation” Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 517-529.

Wasti, S. A., Tan, H. H., Brower, H. H., & Önder, Ç. (2007). “Cross-cultural Measurement of Supervisor Trustworthiness: An Assessment of Measurement Invariance across Three Cultures”. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 477-489.

Wat, D., & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). “Equity and Relationship Quality Influences on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Trust in the Supervisor and Empowerment”. Personnel Review, 34, 406-422.

Way, S. A. (2002). “High Performance Work Systems and Intermediate Indicators of Firm Performance within the U.S. Small Business Sector”. Journal of Management, 28, 765-785.

Whitener, E. M. (2001). “Do “High Commitment” Human Resource Practices Affect Employee Commitment? A Cross-level Analysis Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling”. Journal of Management, 27, 515-535.

Whitener, E. M. (1997). “The Impact of Human Resource Activities on Employee Trust”. Human Resource Management Review, 7, 389-404.

Wong, Y., Ngo, H., & Wong, C. (2006). “Perceived Organizational Justice, Trust, and OCB: A Study of Chinese Workers in Joint Ventures and State-owned Enterprises”. Journal of World Business, 41, 344-355.

Wong, Y., Wong, C., & Ngo, H. (2002). “Loyalty to Supervisor and Trust in Supervisor of Workers in Chinese Joint Ventures: A Test of Two Competing Models”. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 13, 883-900.

Wong, Y., Wong, S., & Wong, Y. (2010). “A Study of Subordinate – Supervisor Guanxi in Chinese Joint Ventures”. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 2142-2155.

Wood, S., & Wall, T. D. (2002). “Human Resource Management and Business Performance”. (Ed.: P. Warr). Psychology at Work. London, Penguin, pp. 351-374.

Wright, T. A., & Quick, J. C. (2009). “The Emerging Positive Agenda in Organizations: Greater than a Trickle, but not yet a Deluge”. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 147-159.

Yang, J., Mossholder, K. W., & Peng, T. K. (2009). “Supervisor Procedural Justice Effects: The Mediating Roles of Cognitive and Affective Trust”. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 143-154.

Yang, M. M. (1994). Gifts, Favors and Banquests: The Art of Social Relationships in China. New York: Cornell University Press.

Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). “Positive Organizational Behavior: The Impact of Hope, Optimism, and Resilience”. Journal of Management, 33, 774-800.

Zacharatos, A., Barling, J., & Iverson, R. (2005). “High-performance Work Systems and Occupational Safety”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 77-93.

Zaheer, A. B., McEvily, B., & Perrone, V. (1998). “Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects of Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance”. Organization Science, 9, 141-159.

Zand, D. E. (1972). “Trust and Managerial Problem Solving”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 229-239.

Zhang, A. Y., Tsui, A. S., Song, L. J., Li, C., & Jia, L. (2008). “How do I Trust Thee? The Employee-organization Relationship, Supervisory Support, and Middle Manager Trust in the Organization”. Human Resource Management, 47, 111-132.