A Critical Theoretical Evaluation On Pro-Poor Tourism And Poverty Alleaviation/Yoksul-Yanlı Turizm ve Yoksulluğu Azaltma Üzerine Kritik Teorik İnceleme

Zuhal Önez Çetin, Hüseyin Özgür
2.174 953

Öz


Abstract

'Pro-poor tourism' (PPT) discourse, having the tourism target results increased net benefits for poor, had gained an overwhelming influence since 1990s; and it started to be taken to the agendas of diverse multi-national, bilateral and donor agencies. However, there is still an ambiguity among the academic views on the theoretical linkage between tourism and poverty alleviation that can be grasped from the theoretical debates starting from 1950s up to 2000s. First theoretical attempt came from Modernization Theory acknowledged tourism as a modernization engine particularly for Third World countries during 1950s; but with the Neo-Marxist scholars, academic view upon Dependency School and Political Economy Theory perspectives, changed the sight towards developing nations cannot take the desired pie from tourism benefits. A new turn occurred in 1990s with the emergence of alternative perspectives including sustainable development practices such as eco-tourism. In that line, PPT origins and approaches need a critical analysis that paper's main objective is setting up the bridge between tourism and poverty concepts by exploring theoretical linkage. Besides, theories that have been explored will also be used to examine multi-national organizations different approaches concerning PPT. PPT has been critically analyzed with the evaluation of its currents strengths and weaknesses.

Key Words: Pro-poor Tourism, Development, Poverty, Poverty Alleviation

Özet

Turizm hedefi, yoksul için net çıkar artırımını sağlamak olan 'Yoksul-Yanlı Turizm' (YYT) söylemi 1990'dan buyana ağırlıklı bir etkiye sahip olmuştur ve birçok ulus-aşırı ve yardım ajanslarının gündemine alınmaya başlanmıştır. Fakat turizm ve yoksulluğu azaltma arasındaki teorik bağ akademik görüşler arasında halen belirsizdir; bu da 1950'den başlayıp 2000'lere devam eden turizm ve yoksulluk bağlamındaki teorik tartışmalarda görülmektedir. İlk teorik çaba 1950'lerde turizmi özellikle üçüncü dünya ülkeleri için modernleşmenin lokomotifi olarak gören Modernleşme Teorisinden gelmektedir; bu teori turizmin ekonomik kalkınma üzerindeki kritik rolünü savunmaktadır. Fakat Neo-Marksist düşünürlerle birlikte, Bağımlılık Okulu ve Politik-Ekonomik Teori perspektiflerine dayanan akademik görüş, bir önceki görüşü, gelişmekte olan ülkeler turizmden istenen payı alamamaktadır varsayımı doğrultusunda değiştirmiştir. Yeni bir dönemeç, 1990'larda eko-turizm gibi sürdürülebilir kalkınma pratiklerini içeren Alternatif Perspektifin ortaya çıkışıyla yaşanmıştır. YYT'in orijin ve söylemlerinin kritik bir analizine ihtiyaç olduğundan hareketle bu çalışmadaki esas amaç turizm ve yoksulluk olguları arasındaki köprüyü teorik bağı araştırarak kurmaktır. Araştırılan teoriler ulus-aşırı örgütlerin YYT'e yönelik farklı yaklaşımlarını incelemekte de kullanılacaktır. Çalışmada zayıf ve güçlü yanları üzerinden YYT' in kritik bir değerlemesi yapılmaktadır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Yoksul-yanlı Turizm, Kalkınma, Yoksulluk, Yoksulluğu Azaltma


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