Akıcı Okumaya Yönelik Öğretmen Bilgisi, Teacher Knowledge on Reading Fluency
Bu araştırmada sınıf öğretmenlerinin akıcı okumaya yönelik öğretmen bilgileri incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu toplam 195 sınıf öğretmeni oluşturmuştur. Sınıf öğretmenlerinin akıcı okumaya yönelik bilgileri açık uçlu sorulardan oluşan anket formu ile toplanmış ve sınıf öğretmenlerinin verdikleri cevaplar araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen dereceli puanlama anahtarına göre değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular çalışmaya katılan sınıf öğretmenlerinin akıcı okuma konusuna yönelik öğretmenlik bilgilerinin alan, pedagojik ve pedagojik alan bilgisi açısından yeterli olmadığını göstermiştir. Elde edilen bulgular literatür doğrultusunda tartışılmış ve yapıcı çözüm önerilerinde bulunulmaya çalışılmıştır.
In this research, elementary school classroom teachers' knowledge regarding teaching reading fluency was examined. A total of 195 elementary school classroom teacher constituted research sample. The study was used a questionnaire with open-ended questions to obtain teachers' knowledge about teaching reading fluency. The teachers' responds were assessed according to a rubric developed by the researchers of this study. The research findings showed that the teachers in this study had lack of content, pedagogic, and pedagogic content knowledge in relation to teaching reading fluency skills. These conclusions drawn from the study were argued in the light of scientific literature and it was given some recommendations to shed light on possible solutions for filling the gap in this area.
Alexander, P. A., & Fives, H. (2000). Achieving expertise in teaching reading. In L. Baker, M. J. Dreher, & J. T. Guthrie (Eds.), Engaging your readers: Promoting achievement and motivation (pp. 285–308). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Allington, R. L., & Johnston, P. H. (2000). What do we know about effective fourth-grade teachers and their classrooms? (Report Series 13010). Albany, NY: National Research Center on English Learning & Achievement.
Ball, D. L. (1996). Teacher learning and the mathematics reforms: What we think we know and what we need to lean. The Phi Delta Kappan, 77, 500-508.
Ball, D. L., Thames, M. H. & Phelps, G. (2008). Content knowledge for teaching: What makes it special? Journal of Teacher Education, 59, 389-407.
Benjamin, R. G., & Schwanenflugel, P. J. (2010). Text complexity and oral reading prosody in young readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 388-404.
Candemir, D. (2008). Examining pre-service teacher's opinions about school experience II course (the Mersin university sample). Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 3, 119-132.
Cunningham, A. E., Perry, K. E., Stanovich, K. E., & Stanovich, P. J. (2004). Disciplinary knowledge of K–3 teachers and their knowledge calibration in the domain of early literacy Annals of Dyslexia, 54, 139–167.
Denton, C. A., Barth, A. E., Fletcher, J. M., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Cirino, P. T., et al. (2011). The relations among oral and silent reading fluency and comprehension in middle school: Implications for identification and instruction of students with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 109-135.
Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M. K., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 239-256.
Glaser, R. (1984). Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American Psychology, 39, 93–104.
Gömleksiz, M. N., Mercin, L., Bulut, I. & Atan, U. (2006). The opinions of prospective teachers on school experience II course (problems and solutions). Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 23, 148-158.
Grossman, P. (1990). The making of a teacher: Teacher knowledge and teacher education. NewYork, NY: Teachers College Press.
Grossman, P., & Richert, A. E. (1988). Unacknowledge knowledge growth: A re-examination of the effects of teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 4, 53–62.
Halim, L. & Meerah, S. M. (2002). Science trainee teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and its influence on physic teaching. Research in Science & Technological Education, 20, 215-225.
Huey, E. B. (1968). The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Originally published 1908)
Kasten, W.C., & Yıldırım, K. (2011). Türk öğrencilerin iyi birer okuryazar olmalarına yönelik öneriler. Ankara: Maya Akademi.
Kim, Y-S., Wagner, R. K., Foster, E. (2011). Relations among oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, and reading comprehension: A latent variable study of first-grade readers. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 338-362.
Klauda, S. L., & Guthrie, J. T. (2008). Relationships of tree components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational psychology, 100, 310-321.
Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 3-21.
Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 230-251.
LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Towards a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.
Lane, H. B., Hudson, R. F., Leite, W. L., Kosanovich, M. L., Strout, M. T., Fenty, N. S., et al. (2009). Teacher knowledge about reading fluency and indicators of students' fluency growth in reading first schools. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25, 57-86.
Leader-Janssen, E., & Rankin-Erickson, J. L. (2013). Preservice teachers' content knowledge and self-efficacy for teaching reading. Literacy Research and Instruction. 52, 204-229.
Mather, N., Bos, C., & Babur, N. (2001). Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and inservice teachers about early literacy instruction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 472-482.
McCutchen, D., & Berninger, V. (1999). Those who know, teach well. Helping teachers master literacy-related subject matter knowledge. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14, 215–226.
Moats, L. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of poken and written language. Annual of Dyslexia, 44, 81–102.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00–4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E. H. (2003). A focus on fluency. Honolulu, HI: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.
Pajares, F. (1992). Teachers` beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307-332.
Pressley, M., & El-Dinary, P. B. (1997). What we know about translating comprehension-strategies instruction research into practice. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 486-488.
Pressley, M., Wharton-McDonald, R., Allington, R., Block, C. C., Morrow, L., Tracey, D., et al. (2001) A study of effective first-grade literacy instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 35-58.
Putnam, R. T. & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29, 4-15.
Rasinski, T. V., Reutzel, D. R., Chard, D., & Limon-Thompson, S. (2011). Reading fluency. In M. L. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (V. IV, pp. 286-319). New York: Rutledge.
Rasinski, T., Yildirim, K., & Nageldinger, J. (2011). Building fluency through the phrased text lesson. The Reading Teacher, 65, 250-253.
Rasinski, T.V. (2010). The fluent reader: Oral & silent reading strategies for building fluency, word recognition & comprehension (2nd ed.). New York: Scholastic.
Rasinski, T.V., Padak, N.D., & Fawcett, C. (2010). Teaching children who find reading difficult (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Reutzel, D., Jones, C. D., Fawson, P. C., & Smith, J. A. (2008). Scaffolded Silent Reading: A Complement to Guided Repeated Oral Reading That Works!. The Reading Teacher, 62, 194–207.
Russell, G., & Joseph, D. (2001). The realities of translating research into classroom practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 120-130.
Samuels, S. J. (2004). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading, revisited. In R. B. Ruddell, & N. J. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (5th ed., pp. 1127-1148). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Schunk, D. H. (1999). Social-self interaction and achievement behavior. Educational psychologist, 34, 219-227.
Schunk, D. H. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing: Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 159-172.
Schwanenflugel, P. J., Hamilton, A. M., Kuhn, M. R., Wisenbaker, J. M., & Stahl, S. A. (2004). Becoming a fluent reader: Reading skill and prosodic features in the oral reading of young readers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 119-129.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15, 4–14.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1–22.
Ulusoy, M., Dedeoğlu, H., & Erten, İ. S. (2012). Öğretmen adaylarının akıcı okuma öğretimi ve değerlendirilmesine yönelik algıları. Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 11, 046-058.
Walsh, K., Glaser, D., & Wilcox, D. D. (2006). What education schools aren't teaching about reading and what elementary teachers aren't learning. Washington, DC: National Council on Teacher Quality.
Woolfolk, A. (2007). Educational psychology (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Yapıcı, S. & Yapıcı, M. (2004). Pre-service teachers' opinions school experience 1 course. Elementary Education Online, 3, 54-59.
Zeichner, K. M., & Tabachnick, R. (1981). Are the effects of university teacher education “washed out” by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32, 7–11.